Sunday, 28 August 2016

Minerals in the News Vol. 14, No. 8 (August 2016)

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Daily Intake of Milk Enriched with n-3 Fatty Acids, Oleic Acid, and Calcium Improves Metabolic and Bone Biomarkers in Postmenopausal Women

J Am Coll Nutr. 2016 Jul 27:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]
Fonolla-Joya J, et al.

Abstract
(AA) OBJECTIVE: Nutritional strategies can be effective for the prevention of menopause-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of a dairy product enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids, calcium, oleic acid, and vitamins on cardiovascular markers and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with moderate cardiovascular risk.
METHODS: One hundred seventeen healthy postmenopausal women (aged 45 ± 7.7 years) were allocated to 2 groups: the intervention group (IG; n = 63), who consumed 0.5 L/day of a low-lactose skimmed milk enriched with 40 mg/100 mL of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 0.54 g/100 mL oleic acid, and vitamins, and the control group (CG; n = 54), who consumed 0.5 L/day of semiskimmed milk 0.5 L/day enriched with vitamins A and D.
RESULTS: After 12 months, in the IG there was an improvement in lipid profile: a -5.78% decrease in total cholesterol (p = 0.010), -9.79% (p = 0.004) in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, -9.56% (p < 0.001) in total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, and -3.38% in LDL/HDL ratio (p < 0.001). No changes were observed in the CG. In the IG we observed a decrease of -28.20% in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; p = 0.012). There was no effect on bone turnover markers or serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) in either of the study groups. In the IG, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) was reduced -17.64% (p = 0.003), with no effect in the CG.
CONCLUSION: In postmenopausal women with moderate cardiovascular risk, dietary supplementation with a dairy drink enriched with fatty acids (EPA+DHA), oleic acid, minerals, and vitamins induces a positive effect on cardiovascular risk and parameters of bone metabolism. Its regular consumption may be a useful nutritional support for postmenopausal women.
 
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Boron influences immune and antioxidant responses by modulating hepatic superoxide dismutase activity under calcium deficit abiotic stress in Wistar rats

J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016 Jul;36:73-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.04.007. Epub 2016 Apr 25.
Bhasker TV, et al.

Abstract
(AA) The influence of Boron (B) supplementation on immune and antioxidant status of rats with or without abiotic stress induced by dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90 days. Wistar strain rats (3-4 wk age, n=84) were divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., normal-calcium (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB-20) and 40ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-calcium (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40ppm B (LCB-40). After 75 days of experimental feeding, rats were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of sheep RBCs to assess their humoral immunity. At the end of the trial, cell-mediated immunity was assessed as foot pad reaction to sheep RBCs injected into the hind leg paws. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals and total antioxidant activity, and liver for superoxide dismutase gene expression analysis. Supplementation of graded levels of B (5, 10, 20 and 40ppm) as borax in NC diets significantly increased (P<0.01) the footpad thickness and serum total antioxidant activity, hepatic expression levels of both Cu-Zn SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2) mRNAs. The erythrocytic SOD activity and humoral response did not differ significantly among the dietary groups. In Ca restricted groups, humoral immune response was significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared to control but increased (P<0.05) with 40ppm B supplementation. Serum levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) remained similar among the dietary groups, while the manganese (Mn) content was significantly decreased (P<0.01) with increased levels of dietary B. In conclusion, B supplementation increased the hepatic mRNA expression levels of both SOD isoenzymes, thereby improving the immune and antioxidant status.
 
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Nutrition and bone health

Oral Dis. 2016 Jun 2. doi: 10.1111/odi.12515. [Epub ahead of print].
Weaver CM, et al.

Abstract
(AA) Low bone mass leads to fracture risk. Osteoporosis affects over 10% of the population and one of every two women over the age of 50 years. Genetics predicts more than half of bone mass. Diet and weight bearing exercise are two lifestyle choices that can influence the risk of fracture. Nutrients are the structural constituents of bone. As bone is a living tissue and turns over, albeit more slowly than other tissues, there is an obligatory loss of minerals daily that must be replaced through diet. Three servings of dairy products daily are recommended to replace those losses. Alternative sources of nutrients can come from calcium fortified orange juice, plant-based beverages, or tofu to provide many nutrients needed for bone health. Supplements can provide nutrients at risk for being inadequate such as calcium or vitamin D.
 
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A Comparative Analysis of the Contents Of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, and Calcium in the Collective Diet Of Preschool Children in the Northwestern Region of Bosnia

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print]
Đermanović M, et al.

Abstract
(AA)  Researches conducted worldwide indicate a frequent deficiency in mineral matters. Due to the increased need during the period of accelerated growth and development, children belong to the group that is exposed to the highest risk of mineral matter deficiency. Our objectives were to determine the iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and calcium intake in the collective diet of the preschool population in the in the northwestern region of Bosnia- in the Republic of Srpska and to estimate the adequacy of the application of the international food composition tables for nutrition planning relating to mineral matters. Samples of food intended for children's diet were collected in the preschool institution "Radost" (a kindergarten), in the city of Prijedor. In daily portions, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ca contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Contents of mineral matters in daily meals were also calculated by the food composition tables. An average daily meal contained 2.86 mg of Fe, 1.71 mg of Zn, 0.19 mg of Cu, 0.21 mg of Mn, and 83.5 mg of Ca. With calculation method, contents of all minerals are significantly higher than the experimental data for all used food composition tables. The obtained results indicate a significant deficiency in mineral matters in the collective diet of the preschool population in the Republic of Srpska, a certain non-compliance with the applicable recommendations, and also suggest a need to create food composition tables for food being consumed in our region.
 
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Immunometabolic Status during the Peripartum Period Is Enhanced with Supplemental Zn, Mn, and Cu from Amino Acid Complexes and Co from Co Glucoheptonate

PLoS One. 2016 May 31;11(5):e0155804. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155804. eCollection 2016.
Batistel F, et al.

Abstract
(AA)  The peripartum (or transition) period is the most-critical phase in the productive life of lactating dairy cows and optimal supply of trace minerals through more bioavailable forms could minimize the negative effects associated with this phase. Twenty Holstein cows received a common prepartal diet and postpartal diet. Both diets were partially supplemented with an inorganic (INO) mix of Zn, Mn, and Cu to supply 35, 45, and 6 ppm, respectively, of the diet dry matter (DM). Cows were assigned to treatments in a randomized completed block design, receiving an daily oral bolus with INO or organic trace minerals (AAC) Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co to achieve 75, 65, 11, and 1 ppm supplemental, respectively, in the diet DM. Liver tissue and blood samples were collected throughout the experiment. The lower glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase concentration after 15 days in milk in AAC cows indicate lower hepatic cell damage. The concentration of cholesterol and albumin increased, while IL-6 decreased over time in AAC cows compared with INO indicating a lower degree of inflammation and better liver function. Although the acute-phase protein ceruloplasmin tended to be lower in AAC cows and corresponded with the reduction in the inflammatory status, the tendency for greater serum amyloid A concentration in AAC indicated an inconsistent response on acute-phase proteins. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased over time in AAC cows. Furthermore, the concentrations of nitric oxide, nitrite, nitrate, and the ferric reducing ability of plasma decreased with AAC indicating a lower oxidative stress status. The expression of IL10 and ALB in liver tissue was greater overall in AAC cows reinforcing the anti-inflammatory response detected in plasma. The greater overall expression of PCK1 in AAC cows indicated a greater gluconeogenic capacity, and partly explained the greater milk production response over time. Overall, feeding organic trace minerals as complexed with amino acids during the transition period improved liver function and decreased inflammation and oxidative stress.