Tuesday, 16 January 2018

Minerals in the News Vol. 16, No. 1 (January 2018)

Enhanced aerobic exercise performance in women by a combination of three mineral Chelates plus two conditionally essential nutrients

Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition201714:42
Robert A. DiSilvestro, et al.

(AA) Background
Certain essential and conditionally essential nutrients (CENs) perform functions involved in aerobic exercise performance. However, increased intake of such nutrient combinations has not actually been shown to improve such performance.
For 1 mo, aerobically fit, young adult women took either a combination of 3 mineral glycinate complexes (daily dose: 36 mg iron, 15 mg zinc, and 2 mg copper) + 2 CENs (daily dose: 2 g carnitine and 400 mg phosphatidylserine), or the same combination with generic mineral complexes, or pacebo (n= 14/group). In Trial 1, before and after 1 mo, subjects were tested for 3 mile run time (primary outcome), followed by distance covered in 25 min on a stationary bike (secondary outcome), followed by a 90 s step test (secondary outcome). To test reproducibility of the run results, and to examine a lower dose of carnitine, a second trial was done. New subjects took either mineral glycinates + CENs (1 g carnitine) or placebo (n = 17/group); subjects were tested for pre- and post-treatment 3 mile run time (primary outcome).
In Trial 1, the mineral glycinates + CENs decreased 3 mile run time (25.6 ± 2.4 vs 26.5 ± 2.3 min, p<0.05, paired t-test) increased stationary bike distance after 25 min (6.5 ± 0.6 vs 6.0 ± 0.8 miles, p<0.05, paired t-test), and increased steps in the step test (43.8 ± 4.8 vs 40.3 ± 6.4 steps, p<0.05, paired t-test). The placebo significantly affected only the biking distance, but it was less than for the glycinates-CENs treatment (0.2 ± 0.4 vs 0.5 ± 0.1 miles, p<0.05, ANOVA + Tukey). The generic minerals + CENs only significantly affected the step test (44.1 ± 5.2 vs 41.0 ± 5.9 steps, p<0.05, paired t-test) In Trial 2, 3 mile run time was decreased for the mineral glycinates + CENs (23.9 ± 3.1 vs 24.7 ± 2.5, p<0.005, paired t-test), but not by the placebo. All changes for Test Formula II or III were high compared to placebo (1.9 to 4.9, Cohen's D), and high for Test Formula II vs I for running and biking (3.2 & 3.5, Cohen's D).
In summary, a combination of certain mineral complexes plus two CENs improved aerobic exercise performance in fit young adult women. 
Multivitamin/mineral supplements: Rationale and safety

Nutrition. 2017 Apr;36:60-66. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.06.003. Epub 2016 Jun 16.
Biesalski HK., et al.

(AA) Multivitamin/mineral supplements (MVMs) are widely used in many populations. MVMs, together with iron and folic acid, are recommended for pregnant women to improve birth outcome and to reduce low-birthweight and rates of miscarriage. However, MVM use is common in the general population as well. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the safety of long-term use of these supplements. To examine the safety of MVM use, we performed a literature search for randomized controlled studies involving supplementation with a combination of at least nine vitamins and three minerals at a maximum concentration of 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance. We found nine studies evaluating the use and efficacy of MVMs in pregnant women and healthy adults and six studies in the elderly where adverse effects were explicitly addressed. Only minor adverse events (e.g., unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms) were reported in all studies. In particular, there were no significant differences between treatment and placebo groups. MVM use within the range of the Dietary Reference Intake will not result in excess intake, even when including the effect of food and fortified food, and does not increase mortality. Taken together, these findings indicate that MVMs can be safe for long-term use (>10 y).
Antioxidant intake from diet and supplements and risk of digestive cancers in middle-aged adults: results from the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort

Br J Nutr. 2017 Oct;118(7):541-549. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517002392. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
Egnell M., et al.

(AA) Experimental studies suggest beneficial effects of antioxidants in digestive cancer prevention. However, epidemiological results are contrasting and few studies quantitatively assessed supplemental intake. This study aimed at investigating the associations between antioxidant intakes (dietary, supplemental and total) and digestive cancer risk. This prospective study included 38 812 middle-aged subjects (≥45 years) from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2016). Dietary data were collected using repeated 24 h records. A specific questionnaire assessed dietary supplement use over a 12-month period. A composition database of about 8000 dietary supplements was developed. Associations between continuous and sex-specific quartiles of vitamins C and E, β-carotene and Se intakes and digestive cancer risk were characterised using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 167 incident digestive cancers (120 colorectal, twenty-six pancreatic, nine oesophagus, seven stomach and five liver) were diagnosed during follow-up investigation. Dietary (hazard ratios (HR) Q4 v. Q1=0·56; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·91, P trend=0·01) and total (HR Q4 v. Q1=0·51; 95 % CI 0·30, 0·84, P trend=0·008) vitamin C intakes, dietary (HR Q4 v. Q1=0·56; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·92, P trend=0·005) and total (HR Q4 v. Q1=0·58; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·94, P trend=0·003) vitamin E intakes, and dietary (HR for an increment of 10 µg/d=0·92; 95 % CI 0·85, 1·00, P=0·04) and total (HR for an increment of 10 µg/d=0·92; 95 % CI 0·86, 0·99, P=0·03) Se intakes were associated with a decreased digestive cancer risk. Statistically significant interactions were observed between dietary and total Se intakes and alcohol consumption as well as between total vitamin E intake and smoking status. This prospective cohort study with quantitative assessment of supplemental intakes suggests a potential protective effect of several antioxidants (vitamins C and E and Se) on digestive cancer risk, and a modulation of some of these relationships by alcohol consumption and smoking status.
Evaluation of Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Paralympic Athletes

Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1266; doi:10.3390/nu9111266.
Robyn F. Madden, et al.

(AA) Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18) and female (n = 22) athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media. Athletes generally met able-bodied recommendations for macronutrients. Male and female athletes often failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin D, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, magnesium, and potassium. On average, females did not meet the RDA for iron and calcium, whereas males did not meet the RDA for vitamin A and folate. Commonly consumed supplements were vitamin D, protein powder, sport bars, and sport drinks. Analysis of diet and supplement use within this population shows several micronutrient deficiencies and irregular use of specific supplements. Athlete support and education is required to optimize nutrition in Paralympic athletes.