Tuesday, 17 January 2017

Minerals in the News Vol. 15, No. 1 (January 2017)

Sodium selenate regulates the brain ionome in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 23;6:39290. doi: 10.1038/srep39290
Zheng L, et al.

(AA) Many studies have shown that imbalance of mineral metabolism may play an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. It was recently reported that selenium could reverse memory deficits in AD mouse model. We carried out multi-time-point ionome analysis to investigate the interactions among 15 elements in the brain by using a triple-transgenic mouse model of AD with/without high-dose sodium selenate supplementation. Except selenium, the majority of significantly changed elements showed a reduced level after 6-month selenate supplementation, especially iron whose levels were completely reversed to normal state at almost all examined time points. We then built the elemental correlation network for each time point. Significant and specific elemental correlations and correlation changes were identified, implying a highly complex and dynamic crosstalk between selenium and other elements during long-term supplementation with selenate. Finally, we measured the activities of two important anti-oxidative selenoenzymes, glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase, and found that they were remarkably increased in the cerebrum of selenate-treated mice, suggesting that selenoenzyme-mediated protection against oxidative stress might also be involved in the therapeutic effect of selenate in AD. Overall, this study should contribute to our understanding of the mechanism related to the potential use of selenate in AD treatment.
Long-term HRV analysis shows stress reduction by magnesium intake

MMW Fortschr Med. 2016 Dec;158(Suppl 6):12-16. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
Wienecke E, et al.

(AA) BACKGROUND: Mental pressure and stress represent an ever-increasing socio-political challenge. The heart rate variability (HRV) measurement, which has its origin in the cardiac function diagnosis, gives information on the neurovegetative activity. A low HRV shows an imbalance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and thus is an indicator of stress.

METHODS: A randomized, controlled, two-armed parallel study with 100 participants and a period of 90 days was performed. Main object of investigation was to what extent the mineral magnesium, which is also a high-quality natural calcium antagonist in cardiology, can influence the sympathovagal balance, when given in combination with a strength-endurance training. The effect on intracellular magnesium concentration was investigated as an additional parameter.

RESULTS: In the group with daily supplementation of 400 mg of magnesium, HRV parameters clearly increased: pNN50 - an indicator of parasympathetic activity - increased. LF-HF ratio as well as stress index - low values for each represent a good balance of the vegetative nervous system - decreased. In the control group no positive changes in HRV parameters could be shown. Vagus activity, and thus the adaptive and regenerative capacity of the body, veritably increased by magnesium supplementation. No effect on the intracellular magnesium concentration could be shown in the study.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study point out that persons with mental and physical stress can benefit from a daily intake of magnesium. This might lead to an improved physiological regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and, furthermore, prevent magnesium deficiency and diseases such as, for example, restlessness, irritability, lack of concentration, sleep disorder or depression.
Lack of Evidence Linking Calcium With or Without Vitamin D Supplementation to Cardiovascular Disease in Generally Healthy Adults: A Clinical Guideline From the National Osteoporosis Foundation and the American Society for Preventive Cardiology

Ann Intern Med. 2016 Dec 20;165(12):867-868. doi: 10.7326/M16-1743. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
Kopecky SL, et al.

(AA) DESCRIPTION: Calcium is the dominant mineral present in bone and a shortfall nutrient in the American diet. Supplements have been recommended for persons who do not consume adequate calcium from their diet as a standard strategy for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Whether calcium with or without vitamin D supplementation is beneficial or detrimental to vascular health is not known.

METHODS: The National Osteoporosis Foundation and American Society for Preventive Cardiology convened an expert panel to evaluate the effects of dietary and supplemental calcium on cardiovascular disease based on the existing peer-reviewed scientific literature. The panel considered the findings of the accompanying updated evidence report provided by an independent evidence review team at Tufts University.

RECOMMENDATION: The National Osteoporosis Foundation and American Society for Preventive Cardiology adopt the position that there is moderate-quality evidence (B level) that calcium with or without vitamin D intake from food or supplements has no relationship (beneficial or harmful) to the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, mortality, or all-cause mortality in generally healthy adults at this time. In light of the evidence available to date, calcium intake from food and supplements that does not exceed the tolerable upper level of intake (defined by the National Academy of Medicine as 2000 to 2500 mg/d) should be considered safe from a cardiovascular standpoint.
Effect of magnesium, probiotic, and vitamin food supplementation in healthy subjects with psychological stress and evaluation of a persistent effect after discontinuing intake

Panminerva Med. 2016 Dec;58(4):263-270. Epub 2016 Jun 16.
Allaert FA, et al.

(AA) BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to describe the changes in subjects' psychological stress intensity under the effect of dietary supplements of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins after one month of intake.

Observational cohort study of subject complaining of psychological stress defined by a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS 10) score of more than 21.

RESULTS: The study covered 242 healthy volunteers, 38.6±13.6-year-old, among whom 79.8% were women. Under the effect of the supplementation of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins, the psychological stress of the subjects decreased significantly from 34.1±4.5 to 26.2±6.1 (P<0.0001), which corresponds to an average reduction of 22.7±16.0%. Fatigue decreased even more significantly from 16.8±6.4 to 8.7±6.2 (P<0.0001), which corresponds to an average reduction of 45.0%±38.1%. Analysis showed that the psychological stress level was strictly similar one month after the treatment was discontinued and therefore clearly demonstrated that the psychological benefit was maintained over time.

CONCLUSION: Stress and fatigue are significantly reduced by the intake of a food supplement with probiotics, magnesium, vitamins, and minerals and this effect is fully maintained one month after discontinuing the food supplement intake.
Gluten free diet and nutrient deficiencies: A review

Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;35(6):1236-1241. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.05.002. Epub 2016 May 7.
Vici G, et al.

(AA) BACKGROUND & AIMS: The only available treatment for celiac disease (CD) is lifelong adherence to gluten free (GF)-diet. However, GF-diet may lead to possible nutrient unbalance resulting in improper nutritional quality of diet. The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional quality of GF-diet.

METHODS: MEDLINE®/PubMed and Cochrane Library were electronically searched for articles published between 1990/01/01 and 2015/09/01.

RESULTS: GF-diet was found to be poor in alimentary fiber due in particular to the necessary avoidance of several kinds of foods naturally rich in fiber (i.e. grain) and the low content of fiber of GF product that are usually made with starches and/or refined flours. Micronutrients are also found to be poor, in particular Vit. D, Vit. B12 and folate, in addition to some minerals such as iron, zinc, magnesium and calcium. Moreover, an inadequate macronutrient intake was reported related above all to the focus on the avoidance of gluten that often leaving back the importance of nutritional quality of the choice. In particular, it was found a higher content of both saturated and hydrogenated fatty acids and an increase in the glycemic index and glycemic load of the meal.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the GF-diet is necessary in celiac disease treatment and the attention is on gluten avoidance, the evaluation of nutritional quality of the diet must be considered. Moreover, educational strategies based on the relationship between nutrients and food and human health could be developed to optimize the therapeutic approach in celiac patients.