Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Minerals in the News Vol. 15, No. 11 (November 2017)

Iron Absorption from Three Commercially Available Supplements in Gastrointestinal Cell Lines

Nutrients. 2017 Sep; 9(9): 1008. doi: 10.3390/nu9091008
Francesca Uberti, et al.

(AA) This study compares the absorption characteristics of two iron-based dietary supplements and their biocompatibility to bisglycinate iron, a common chelated iron form. The Caco-2 cell line-a model of human intestinal absorption-and GTL-16 cell line-a model of gastric epithelial cells-were used to perform the experiments; in the first experiments, the kinetics of absorption have been evaluated analyzing the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression. Three different iron combinations containing 50 µM iron (named Fisioeme®, Sideral® and bisglycinate) were used for different stimulation times (1-24 h). After this, the effects of the three iron formulations were assessed in both a short and a long time, in order to understand the extrusion mechanisms. The effects of the three different formulations were also analyzed at the end of stimulation period immediately after iron removal, and after some time in order to clarify whether the mechanisms were irreversibly activated. Findings obtained in this study demonstrate that Fisioeme® was able to maintain a significant beneficial effect on cell viability compared to control, to Sideral®, and to iron bisglycinate. This observation indicates that Fisioeme® formulation is the most suitable for gastric and intestinal epithelial cells.
Dietary Intake of Minerals, Vitamins, and Trace Elements Among Geriatric Population in India

Biological Trace Element Research, November 2017, Volume 180, Issue 1, pp 28-38
Aakriti Gupta, et al.

(AA) The geriatric population is at a high risk of developing deficiencies of essential micronutrients such as minerals, vitamins, and trace elements and their related deficiency signs and symptoms. Scarce data is available on the dietary intake of essential micronutrients among geriatric subjects in India. Hence, to fill the gap in the existing knowledge, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2015-2016 in District Nainital, Uttarakhand State, India. A total of 255 geriatric subjects were enrolled from 30 clusters (villages) identified by using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. Data were collected on sociodemographic profile and dietary intake of essential micronutrients (24-h dietary recall, food frequency questionnaire) from all the geriatric subjects. A high percentage of geriatric subjects did not consume the recommended daily intake for essential micronutrients such as energy (78%), protein (78%), calcium (51%), thiamine (33%), riboflavin (64%), niacin (88%), vitamin C (42%), iron (72%), folic acid (72%), magnesium (48%), zinc (98%), copper (81%) and chromium (89%) adequately. Food groups rich in essential micronutrients such as pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fruits, nonvegetarian food items, and milk and milk products were consumed irregularly by the subjects. The overall intake of energy and essential micronutrients was inadequate among the geriatric population in India, possibly due to poor quality and quantity of the diet consumed.
The Impact of Supplemental Antioxidants on Visual Function in Nonadvanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Head-to-Head Randomized Clinical Trial

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Oct 1;58(12):5347-5360. doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-21192.
Akuffo KO., et al.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of supplemental macular carotenoids (including versus not including meso-zeaxanthin) in combination with coantioxidants on visual function in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration.
In this study, 121 participants were randomly assigned to group 1 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc and an addition of 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin; n = 60) or group 2 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc; n = 61). Visual function was assessed using best-corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), glare disability, retinal straylight, photostress recovery time, reading performance, and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25. Macular pigment was measured using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry.
There was a statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome measure (letter CS at 6 cycles per degree [6 cpd]) over time (P = 0.013), and this observed improvement was statistically comparable between interventions (P = 0.881). Statistically significant improvements in several secondary outcome visual function measures (letter CS at 1.2 and 2.4 cpd; mesopic and photopic CS at all spatial frequencies; mesopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, and 6 cpd; photopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 cpd; photostress recovery time; retinal straylight; mean and maximum reading speed) were also observed over time (P < 0.05, for all), and were statistically comparable between interventions (P > 0.05, for all). Statistically significant increases in macular pigment at all eccentricities were observed over time (P < 0.0005, for all), and the degree of augmentation was statistically comparable between interventions (P > 0.05).
Antioxidant supplementation in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration results in significant increases in macular pigment and improvements in CS and other measures of visual function. (Clinical trial, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN13894787).
Role of copper in the process of spermatogenesis

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2017 Aug 9;71(0):663-683.
Ogórek M., et al.

(AA) Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element required for the normal development of living organisms. Due to its redox potential, copper is a cofactor in many enzymes responsible for important processes in cells. Copper deficiency has a significant influence on the reduction or the total eradication of copper-dependent enzymes in the body, thereby inhibiting cell life processes. On the other hand, copper is a very reactive element and in its free state, it can trigger the production of large amounts of free radicals, which will consequently lead to the damage of proteins and DNA. Because of those reasons, living organisms have developed precise mechanisms regulating the concentration of copper in cells. Copper also plays a very important role in male fertility. It is an essential element for the production of male gametes. The significant role of copper is also described in the processes of cell division - mitotic and meiotic. Copper-dependent enzymes such as ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase SOD1 and SOD3, group of metallothionein and cytochrome c oxidase are present at all stages of gametogenesis as well as in the somatic cells of the testis and in the somatic cells of epididymis. Substantial amounts of copper can also be found in liquids associated with sperm in the epididymis and prostate. Copper also affects the integral androgen distribution in terms of fertility on the line hypothalamic-pituitary-testis. Both copper increase and deficiency leads to a significant reduction in male fertility, which spans the entire spectrum of abnormalities at the sperm level, male gonad, production of hormones and distribution of micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Nowadays, the effects of copper on gametes production have become more important and are connected with the increasing levels of pollution with heavy metals in environment.