Sunday, 19 February 2017

Minerals in the News Vol. 15, No. 2 (February 2017)

An investigation of dietary nutrition in kindergartens of Chongqing, China

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2017 Jan;19(1):64-67
Liu X, et al.

(AA) OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of dietary nutrition in kindergartens of Chongqing, China.

METHODS: A total of 295 kindergartens (47 first-class ones, 88 second-class ones, and 160 third-class ones) from the 11 districts or counties of Chongqing by stratified cluster random sampling were investigated. The dietary nutrition in each kindergarten was evaluated by weighing. The dietary qualification rates were compared between the three classes of kindergartens.

RESULTS: The qualification rates of energy, proteins, most vitamins, minerals, and quality proteins supply were over 60% in all three classes of kindergartens, while the qualification rates of vitamin A, ascorbic acid, calcium, and zinc supply were less than 60%. The energy supply rates at breakfast, lunch, supper and snack met the standards in less than 40% in all kindergartens. There were significant differences in the qualification rates of some nutrient parameters between different classes of kindergartens, highest in the first-class kindergartens.

CONCLUSIONS: The dietary nutrition is good in the first-, second-, and third-class kindergartens of Chongqing, but there is still nutrient imbalance. It is necessary to strengthen the dietary guidance in kindergartens, especially second-, and third-class kindergartens.
Dietary calcium impairs tomato lycopene bioavailability in healthy humans

Br J Nutr. 2016 Dec;116(12):2091-2096. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516004335. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
Borel P, et al.

(AA) Lycopene (LYC) bioavailability is relatively low and highly variable, because of the influence of several factors. Recent in vitro data have suggested that dietary Ca can impair LYC micellarisation, but there is no evidence whether this can lead to decreased LYC absorption efficiency in humans. Our objective was to assess whether a nutritional dose of Ca impairs dietary LYC bioavailability and to study the mechanism(s) involved. First, in a randomised, two-way cross-over study, ten healthy adults consumed either a test meal that provided 19-mg (all-E)-LYC from tomato paste or the same meal plus 500-mg calcium carbonate as a supplement. Plasma LYC concentration was measured at regular time intervals over 7 h postprandially. In a second approach, an in vitro digestion model was used to assess the effect of increasing Ca doses on LYC micellarisation and on the size and zeta potential of the mixed micelles produced during digestion of a complex food matrix. LYC bioavailability was diminished by 83 % following the addition of Ca in the test meal. In vitro, Ca affected neither LYC micellarisation nor mixed micelle size but it decreased the absolute value of their charge by 39 %. In conclusion, a nutritional dose of Ca can impair dietary LYC bioavailability in healthy humans. This inhibition could be due to the fact that Ca diminishes the electrical charge of micelles. These results call for a thorough assessment of the effects of Ca, or other divalent minerals, on the bioavailability of other carotenoids and lipophilic micronutrients.
Multivitamin/mineral supplements: Rationale and safety - A systematic review

Nutrition. 2017 Jan;33:76-82. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.02.013. Epub 2016 Mar 4.
Biesalski HK, et al.

(AA) Multivitamin/mineral supplements (MVM) are widely used in many populations. In particular, in pregnant women, MVM together with iron and folic acid are recommended to improve birth outcome and reduce low birth weight and rates of miscarriage. However, MVM use is common in the general population. This raises questions regarding the safety of long-term use of these supplements. To estimate the safety of MVM use, we performed a literature search for randomized, controlled studies for supplements with a combination of at least nine vitamins and three minerals at a maximum concentration of 100% of the recommended dietary allowance. We found nine studies evaluating the use and efficacy of MVM in pregnant women and healthy adults and six studies in the elderly where adverse effects were explicitly addressed. Only minor adverse effects (e.g., unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms) were reported in all studies. In particular, there were no significant differences between treatment and placebo groups. MVM use within the range of the dietary reference intake will not result in excess intake, even when including the impact of food and fortified food, and does not increase mortality. Taken together, these findings indicate that MVM can be safe for long-term use (more than 10 y).
A Comparative Analysis of the Contents Of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, and Calcium in the Collective Diet Of Preschool Children in the Northwestern Region of Bosnia

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017 Jan;175(1):27-32. doi: 10.1007/s12011-016-0755-7. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
Đermanović M, et al.

(AA) Researches conducted worldwide indicate a frequent deficiency in mineral matters. Due to the increased need during the period of accelerated growth and development, children belong to the group that is exposed to the highest risk of mineral matter deficiency. Our objectives were to determine the iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and calcium intake in the collective diet of the preschool population in the in the northwestern region of Bosnia- in the Republic of Srpska and to estimate the adequacy of the application of the international food composition tables for nutrition planning relating to mineral matters. Samples of food intended for children's diet were collected in the preschool institution "Radost" (a kindergarten), in the city of Prijedor. In daily portions, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ca contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Contents of mineral matters in daily meals were also calculated by the food composition tables. An average daily meal contained 2.86 mg of Fe, 1.71 mg of Zn, 0.19 mg of Cu, 0.21 mg of Mn, and 83.5 mg of Ca. With calculation method, contents of all minerals are significantly higher than the experimental data for all used food composition tables. The obtained results indicate a significant deficiency in mineral matters in the collective diet of the preschool population in the Republic of Srpska, a certain non-compliance with the applicable recommendations, and also suggest a need to create food composition tables for food being consumed in our region.
The Age-Related Eye Disease 2 Study: Micronutrients in the Treatment of Macular Degeneration

Adv Nutr. 2017 Jan 17;8(1):40-53. doi: 10.3945/an.116.013177. Print 2017 Jan.
Gorusupudi A, et al.

(AA) Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of vision loss in the elderly. With an increasingly aged population worldwide, the need for the prevention of AMD is rising. Multiple studies investigating AMD with the use of animal models and cell culture have identified oxidative stress-related retinal damage as an important contributing factor. In general, diet is an excellent source of the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals necessary for healthy living; moreover, the general public is often receptive to recommendations made by physicians and health care workers regarding diet and supplements as a means of empowering themselves to avoid common and worrisome ailments such as AMD, which has made epidemiologists and clinicians enthusiastic about dietary intervention studies. A wide variety of nutrients, such as minerals, vitamins, ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and various carotenoids, have been associated with reducing the risk of AMD. Initial results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) indicated that supplementation with antioxidants (β-carotene and vitamins C and E) and zinc was associated with a reduced risk of AMD progression. The AREDS2 follow-up study, designed to improve upon the earlier formulation, tested the addition of lutein, zeaxanthin, and ω-3 fatty acids. In this review, we examine the science behind the nutritional factors included in these interventional studies and the reasons for considering their inclusion to lower the rate of AMD progression.
Study of the Serum Copper Levels in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Dec;174(2):287-293. Epub 2016 May 5.
Styczeń K, et al.

(AA) Copper may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Clinical data on this issue are very limited and not conclusive. The purpose of the study was to determine the copper concentration in the serum of patients with major depressive disorder and to discuss its potential clinical usefulness as a biomarker of the disease. A case-control clinical study included 69 patients with current depressive episode, 45 patients in remission and 50 healthy volunteers. Cu concentration was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The mean serum copper level in depressed patients was slightly lower (by 11 %; not statistically significant) than in the control group. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in Cu2+ concentration between depressive episode and remission, nor between remission and control group. In the remission group were observed significant correlations between copper levels and the average number of relapses over the past years or time of remission. There was no correlation between serum copper and severity of depression, as measured by HDRS and MADRS. The obtained results showed no significant differences between the copper concentration in the blood serum of patients (both with current depressive episode and in remission) and healthy volunteers, as well as the lack of correlations between the copper level in the active stage of the disease and clinical features of the population. Our study is the first conducted on such a large population of patients, so the results may be particularly important and reliable source of knowledge about the potential role of copper in depression.