Saturday, 19 August 2017

Minerals in the News Vol. 15, No. 8 (August 2017)

Effect of magnesium supplementation on insulin resistance in humans: A systematic review

Nutrition. 2017 Jun;38:54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.01.009. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
Morais JBS, et al.

Recent studies have demonstrated that minerals play a role in glucose metabolism disorders in humans. Magnesium, in particular, is an extensively studied mineral that has been shown to function in the management of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance (IR) action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of magnesium supplementation on IR in humans via systematic review of the available clinical trials.
This review was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. A survey was conducted to select clinical trials related to the effects of this mineral in insulin sensitivity using the following databases: PubMed, SciVerse Scopus, ScienceDirect, and SciVerse Cochrane.
After the selection process, 12 articles were identified as eligible, representing different clinical conditions and being free of restriction with regard to sex, age, ethnicity, and differential dosing/shape of magnesium. The results of eight clinical trials showed that supplementation with magnesium influences serum fasting glucose concentrations, and five trials determined an effect on fasting insulin levels. The results of seven studies demonstrated that mineral supplementation reduced homeostasis model assessment for IR values.
The data of this systematic review provide evidence as to the benefits of magnesium supplementation in reducing IR in patients with hypomagnesemia presenting IR. However, new intervention studies are needed to elucidate the role of the nutrient in protection against this metabolic disorder, as well as the standardization of the type, dose, and time of magnesium supplementation.
Reduced maternal calcium intake through nutrition and supplementation is associated with adverse conditions for both the women and their infants in a Chinese population

Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 May;96(18):e6609. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000006609.
Liu X., et al.

(AA) Effective nutritional guidelines for pregnant women in China are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary nutrition on the health condition of pregnant women and infants in China.In total, 331 pregnant women who had prenatal examinations were included in this study. Data, including dietary nutrition questionnaires, the weight, height, age, and health condition of the pregnant women as well as the health condition of the infants, were recorded.The average intake of milk, poultry and meat, fish and prawns, eggs, and bean products were 297.28 ± 129.67 mL/day, 123.34 ± 52.04 g/day, 157.31 ± 70.04 g/day, 67.34 ± 45.28 g/day, and 1.21 ± 0.62 per day, respectively. Among the 331 pregnant women, the intake rates of supplemental calcium and VD were 86.7% and 69.8%, respectively. The intake of milk, bean products, and meats was obviously lower (all P<.05) in the pregnant women with systremma compared to those without it. In addition, the body weight before and after delivery was higher (all P<.05) in the pregnant women with systremma. The calcium intake of the pregnant women and the infants' BMD were remarkably lower in the infants with pillow baldness or a wider anterior fontanelle (P<.01) compared to those without the features.The intake of milk, poultry and meat, fish and prawns, eggs, and bean products by pregnant women should be monitored, and in particular, the proper intake of milk, bean products, and meats, as well as calcium supplements, might decrease the occurrence of systremma in pregnant women and reduce the rate pillow baldness and a wider anterior fontanelle in infants.
Calcium Bioavailability from Mineral Waters with Different Mineralization in Comparison to Milk and a Supplement

J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Jul;36(5):386-390. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2017.1299651. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
Greupner T., et al.

The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of calcium from 3 mineral waters with different concentrations of minerals with that of milk and a calcium supplement.
A single-center, randomized controlled trial with a crossover design with 21 healthy men and women was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover. The participants consumed the 5 test products providing 300 mg of calcium each on 5 examination days with 1-week wash-out phases in between. Primary outcome variables were the area under the curve of serum calcium levels for 10-hour (AUC0-10h) and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion.
In all groups, no significant differences in the AUC0-10h of serum calcium levels as well as in the 24-hour urinary calcium excretion were observed. Likewise, mean changes in serum phosphate and urinary phosphate, as well as serum parathormone, showed no differences between the groups.
Given an equivalent bioavailability of calcium in all test products, neither a high concentration of SO42- or of HCO3 influenced the bioavailability of calcium. Accordingly, the use of mineral water with high concentrations of calcium constitutes a calorie-free calcium source that can improve calcium supply.
Biofortification with Iron and Zinc Improves Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Common Wheat Flour and Bread

J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Jul 12;65(27):5443-5452. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01176. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
Ciccolini V., et al.

(AA) The effect of field foliar Fe and Zn biofortification on concentration and potential bioavailability of Fe and Zn and health-promoting compounds was studied in wholemeal flour of two common wheat varieties (old vs modern). Moreover, the effect of milling and bread making was studied. Biofortification increased the concentration of Zn (+78%) and its bioavailability (+48%) in the flour of the old variety, whereas it was ineffective in increasing Fe concentration in both varieties. However, the old variety showed higher concentration (+41%) and bioavailability (+26%) of Fe than the modern one. As regard milling, wholemeal flour had higher Fe, Zn concentration and health-promoting compounds compared to white flour. Bread making slightly change Fe and Zn concentration but greatly increased their bioavailability (77 and 70%, respectively). All these results are of great support for developing a production chain of enriched functional bread having a protective role against chronic cardio-vascular diseases.
Assessment of serum trace elements and electrolytes in children with childhood and atypical autism

Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Vol 43, September 2017, pgs 9-14.
Skalny AV, et al.

(AA) The existing data demonstrate a significant interrelation between ASD and essential and toxic trace elements status of the organism. However, data on trace element homeostasis in particular ASD forms are insufficient. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the level of trace elements and electrolytes in serum of children with childhood and atypical autism. A total of 48 children with ASD (24 with childhood and 24 with atypical autism) and age- and sex-adjusted controls were examined. Serum trace elements and electrolytes were assessed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data demonstrate that children with ASD unspecified are characterized by significantly lower Ni, Cr, and Se levels as compared to the age- and sex-matched controls. At the same time, significantly decreased serum Ni and Se concentrations were detected in patients with childhood autism. In turn, children with atypical autism were characterized by more variable serum trace element spectrum. In particular, atypical autism is associated with lower serum Al, As, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Se levels in comparison to the control values. Moreover, Al and Mn concentration in this group was also lower than that in childhood autism patients. Generally, the obtained data demonstrate lower levels of both essential and toxic trace elements in atypical autism group, being indicative of profound alteration of trace elements metabolism. However, further detailed metabolic studies are required to reveal critical differences in metabolic pathways being responsible for difference in trace element status and clinical course of the disease.