Minerals and Trace Elements in Human Breast
Milk Are Associated with Guatemalan Infant Anthropometric Outcomes
within the First 6 Months
J Nutr. 2016 Oct;146(10):2067-2074. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
Li C, et al.
(AA) BACKGROUND: Breast milk is
the recommended source of nutrients for infant growth, but its adequacy
to meet infants' mineral and trace element needs is unknown.
OBJECTIVES: We used breast-milk mineral and trace element
concentrations of Guatemalan mothers at 3 lactation stages to estimate
total daily intakes and to determine whether intakes were associated
with early infant growth.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, breast-milk samples
were collected from Mam-Mayan mothers during transitional (5-17 d, n =
56), early (18-46 d, n = 75), and established (4-6 mo, n = 103)
lactation; z scores for weight (WAZ), length (LAZ), and head
circumference (HCAZ) were measured. Concentrations of 11 minerals
(calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese,
rubidium, selenium, strontium, and zinc) were analyzed by inductively
coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). WHO equations were used to
calculate the estimated energy requirement, which was divided by the
energy density of breast milk to estimate daily milk volume, and this
number was multiplied by breast-milk mineral concentrations to estimate
intakes. Principal component analyses identified clusters of minerals;
principal components (PCs) were used in regression analyses for
RESULTS: Estimated breast-milk intakes during established
lactation were insufficient to compensate for the lower milk sodium,
copper, manganese, and zinc concentrations in male infants and the lower
sodium, iron and manganese concentrations in female infants. Estimated
intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and selenium were
below the Institute of Medicine Adequate Intake for both sexes at all 3
stages of lactation. In early lactation, multiple linear regressions
showed that PC1 (calcium, magnesium, potassium, rubidium, and strontium
intakes) was positively associated with WAZ, LAZ, and HCAZ. In
established lactation, the same PC with sodium added was positively
associated with all 3 anthropometric outcomes; a second PC (PC2: zinc,
copper, and selenium intakes) was associated with WAZ and LAZ but not
CONCLUSIONS: Breast milk may be inadequate in selected
minerals and trace elements where higher estimated intakes were
associated with greater infant growth.
High Prevalence of Inadequate Calcium and Iron Intakes by Mexican Population Groups as Assessed by 24-Hour Recalls
J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1874S-80S. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.227074. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
Sánchez-Pimienta TG, et al.
(AA) BACKGROUND: A National
Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) conducted in Mexico in 1999
identified a high prevalence of inadequate mineral intakes in the
population by using 24-h recall questionnaires. However, the 1999 survey
did not adjust for within-person variance. The 2012 ENSANUT implemented
a more up-to-date 24-h recall methodology to estimate usual intake
distributions and prevalence of inadequate intakes.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the distribution of usual intakes and
prevalences of inadequate intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc
in the Mexican population in groups defined according to sex, rural or
urban area, geographic region of residence, and socioeconomic status
METHODS: We used dietary intake data obtained through the 24-h
recall automated multiple-pass method for 10,886 subjects as part of
ENSANUT 2012. A second measurement on a nonconsecutive day was obtained
for 9% of the sample. Distributions of usual intakes of the 4 minerals
were obtained by using the Iowa State University method, and the
prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by using the Institute of
Medicine's Estimated Average Requirement cutoff.
RESULTS: Calcium inadequacy was 25.6% in children aged 1-4 y
and 54.5-88.1% in subjects >5 y old. More than 45% of subjects >5 y
old had an inadequate intake of iron. Less than 5% of children aged
<12 y and 25-35% of subjects aged >12 y had inadequate intakes of
magnesium, whereas zinc inadequacy ranged from <10% in children aged
<12 y to 21.6% in men aged ≥20 y. Few differences were found between
rural and urban areas, regions, and tertiles of SES.
CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc
are inadequate in the Mexican population, especially among adolescents
and adults. These results suggest a public health concern that must be
A review of iron studies in overweight and obese children and adolescents: a double burden in the young
Eur J Nutr. 2016 Oct;55(7):2179-97. doi: 10.1007/s00394-016-1155-7. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
Hutchinson C, et al.
(AA) INTRODUCTION: The
connection between iron and excessive adiposity has received much
research interest. Although children and adolescents have unique
developmental phases and nutritional demands, to date, reviews of iron
in the overweight (OW) and obese (OB) have combined studies of children
and adults or have focussed on adults.
PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to critically evaluate
studies of the relationship between iron and OW and obesity in children
and adolescents, with emphasis on iron status, oral iron response,
dietary intake and systemic inflammatory markers.
METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted to identify relevant
articles published up to December 2015. Combinations of the following
keywords were used: iron, OW, OB, children, adolescents, diet, hepcidin,
inflammation, fortification, supplementation, weight loss, trace
elements, obesity, iron deficiency (ID), minerals.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A higher prevalence of ID, or risk of
ID, among OW and OB children and adolescents has been consistently
observed. Chronic inflammation caused by excessive adiposity offers a
plausible explanation for this finding, rather than dietary factors.
However, future studies must employ screening for the presence of both
acute and chronic infections and inflammatory conditions and report
other factors such as pubertal status. Intervention studies, although
few, indicate that OW and OB children and adolescents have reduced
response to oral iron. Further trials are needed to explore the
connection between body fat mass, inflammatory proteins and iron
absorption, together with the effect of weight loss on iron status in
iron-deficient OW and OB children and adolescents.
Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on
Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Sep;173(1):1-6. doi: 10.1007/s12011-016-0623-5. Epub 2016 Jan 16.
Suliburska J, et al.
(AA) The effects of Spirulina maxima
supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were
studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects
with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina
or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the
calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed.
It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a
significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients.
In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of
spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with
hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese
Caucasians with well-treated hypertension.