Saturday, 24 June 2017

Minerals in the News Vol. 15, No. 6 (June 2017)

Effect of zinc plus multivitamin supplementation on growth in school children

Pediatr Int. 2016 Nov;58(11):1193-1199. doi: 10.1111/ped.13011. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
Rerksuppaphol S., et al.

Zinc and multiple vitamins are essential for growth. Zinc and vitamin deficiency is very common in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of zinc plus multivitamin supplements in improving growth of healthy Thai schoolchildren.
A randomized controlled trial was conducted in healthy 4-13-year-old Thai schoolchildren attending public school in central Thailand. Participants were randomized to receive either chelated zinc in the form of zinc bis-glycinate (20 mg elemental zinc) plus multivitamins (vitamin A, 1000 IU; vitamin D, 200 IU; B1, 10 mg; B2, 3 mg; B6, 1 mg; B12, 10 μg; nicotinamide, 40 mg) or placebo once per day, 5 days per week for 6 months. Primary outcome was change in height from baseline to the end of the study. Secondary outcomes were change in weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-height ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed.
Seventy children each were randomized to the treatment and placebo groups. The children who received zinc and multivitamins had significantly higher gain in height (4.9 ± 1.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.9 cm, respectively; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed significant improvement in height, especially in preadolescents. The increased gain in height was irrespective of baseline height and weight. The extra gain in height occurred after 2 months of supplementation. The changes in other anthropometric indices were not significantly different.
Supplementation of chelated zinc plus multivitamins for 6 months significantly increased height gain in Thai schoolchildren and was well tolerated. 
Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland

Eur J Nutr. 2017 Feb;56(1):283-293. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1079-7. Epub 2015 Oct 26.
Schüpbach R., et al.

Vegetarian and vegan diets have gained popularity in Switzerland. The nutritional status of individuals who have adopted such diets, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the intake and status of selected vitamins and minerals among vegetarian and vegan adults living in Switzerland.
Healthy adults [omnivores (OVs), n OV = 100; vegetarians (VGs), n VG = 53; vegans (VNs), n VN = 53] aged 18-50 years were recruited, and their weight and height were measured. Plasma concentrations of the vitamins A, C, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin and β-carotene and of the minerals Fe, Mg and Zn and urinary iodine concentration were determined. Dietary intake was assessed using a three-day weighed food record, and questionnaires were issued in order to assess the physical activity and lifestyle of the subjects.
Omnivores had the lowest intake of Mg, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin and folic acid. Vegans reported low intakes of Ca and a marginal consumption of the vitamins D and B12. The highest prevalence for vitamin and mineral deficiencies in each group was as follows: in the omnivorous group, for folic acid (58 %); in the vegetarian group, for vitamin B6 and niacin (58 and 34 %, respectively); and in the vegan group, for Zn (47 %). Despite negligible dietary vitamin B12 intake in the vegan group, deficiency of this particular vitamin was low in all groups thanks to widespread use of supplements. Prevalence of Fe deficiency was comparable across all diet groups.
Despite substantial differences in intake and deficiency between groups, our results indicate that by consuming a well-balanced diet including supplements or fortified products, all three types of diet can potentially fulfill requirements for vitamin and mineral consumption.
Maternal iron intake during pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cross-sectional study in Northwest China

Volume 117, Issue 6, March 2017, pp. 862-871. DOI:
Jiaomei Yang, et al.

(AA) Previous studies have yielded conflicting results on the associations of maternal Fe intake with birth outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the associations between maternal Fe intake (total Fe from diet and supplements, dietary total Fe, haeme Fe, non-haeme Fe and Fe supplements use) and adverse birth outcomes in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. In all, 7375 women were recruited using a stratified multistage random sampling method at 0-12 months (median 3; 10th-90th percentile 0-7) after delivery. Diets were collected by a validated FFQ and maternal characteristics were obtained via a standard questionnaire. The highest tertile of haeme Fe intake compared with the lowest tertile was negatively associated with low birth weight (LBW) (OR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·94), small for gestational age (SGA) (OR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·62, 0·94) and birth defects (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·32, 0·89). Maternal haeme Fe intake was associated with a lower risk of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) (medium tertile v. lowest tertile: OR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·61, 0·95; highest tertile v. lowest tertile: OR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·93; P trend=0·045). The OR of LBW associated with Fe supplements use were as follows: during pregnancy: 0·72 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·95); in the second trimester: 0·67 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·98); in the third trimester: 0·47 (95 % CI 0·24, 0·93). We observed no associations of total Fe, dietary total Fe or non-haeme Fe intake with birth outcomes. The results suggest that maternal haeme Fe intake is associated with a reduced risk of LBW, SGA, IUGR and birth defects, and Fe supplements use during pregnancy reduces LBW risk.
Overexpression of Endogenous Anti-Oxidants with Selenium Supplementation Protects Trophoblast Cells from Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Apoptosis in a Bcl-2-Dependent Manner

Biological Trace Element Research, June 2017, Volume 177, Issue 2, pp 394-403.
Alisha Khera, et al.

(AA) The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red). Placental trophoblast cell lines, BeWo, JEG-3 and Swan-71, were cultured in various concentrations of NaSel or SeMet for 24 h and cell extracts prepared for western blots and enzyme assays. Rotenone and antimycin were used to stimulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce apoptosis. Trophoblast cells supplemented with 100 nM NaSel and 500 nM SeMet exhibited significantly enhanced expression and activity of both GPx and Thx-Red. Antimycin and rotenone were found to generate ROS when measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assay, and selenium supplementation was shown to reduce ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. Rotenone, 100 μM treatment for 4 h, caused trophoblast cell apoptosis as evidenced by increased Annexin V binding and decreased expression of Bcl-2. In both assays of apoptosis, selenium supplementation was able to prevent apoptosis, preserve Bcl-2 expression and protect trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress. This data suggests that selenoproteins such as GPx and Thx-Red have an important role in protecting trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress and that selenium supplementation may be important in treating some placental pathologies.
Evaluation of the Relationship Between Height and Zinc, Copper, Iron, Calcium, and Magnesium Levels in Healthy Young Children in Beijing, China

Biological Trace Element Research, April 2017, Volume 176, Issue 2, pp 244-250.
Yan Yin, et al.

(AA) We evaluated the relationship between child (aged 6-36 months) height and blood zinc, copper, iron, calcium, and magnesium concentrations. We selected 840 children following a physical examination. Weight and supine length or standing height were measured according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Polarographic analysis was used to measure zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, and calcium levels. Differences in heights between groups with low vs. high mineral concentrations, stratified by sex and age, were compared by analysis of variance. Relationships between these five elements and heights were tested by multiple regression analysis. Zinc levels in the shorter group (height for age (HAZ) ≤ −0.3) were 135.84 ± 39.76 and 134.83 ± 37.57 μmol/L in boys and girls, respectively. Zinc concentrations in the taller group (HAZ > −0.3) were 142.50 ± 35.85 and 140.52 ± 35.80 μmol/L in boys and girls, respectively. The difference between the two height groups in boys and girls was statistically significant. Compared with those (143.06 ± 33.76 μmol/L) in the taller group, zinc concentration (131.30 ± 40.75 μmol/L) in the shorter group was significantly lower (p = 0.04) at age 6-12 months. Height was positively correlated with zinc level in children aged 6-12 months (p < 0.05). Zinc levels were positively correlated with calcium, magnesium, and iron concentrations in children aged 6-36 months (p < 0.05). Our results indicated that zinc levels and height are correlated, and zinc levels were related to calcium, magnesium, copper, and iron concentrations. Therefore, to ensure healthy development in children, blood levels of these five elements should be balanced.