Sunday, 25 September 2016

Minerals in the News Vol. 14, No. 9 (September 2016)

Minerals and Trace Elements in Human Breast Milk Are Associated with Guatemalan Infant Anthropometric Outcomes within the First 6 Mo.

J Am Coll Nutr. 2016 Jul 27:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]
Li C, et al.

(AA) BACKGROUND: Breast milk is the recommended source of nutrients for infant growth, but its adequacy to meet infants' mineral and trace element needs is unknown.
OBJECTIVES: We used breast-milk mineral and trace element concentrations of Guatemalan mothers at 3 lactation stages to estimate total daily intakes and to determine whether intakes were associated with early infant growth.
METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, breast-milk samples were collected from Mam-Mayan mothers during transitional (5-17 d, n = 56), early (18-46 d, n = 75), and established (4-6 mo, n = 103) lactation; z scores for weight (WAZ), length (LAZ), and head circumference (HCAZ) were measured. Concentrations of 11 minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, rubidium, selenium, strontium, and zinc) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). WHO equations were used to calculate the estimated energy requirement, which was divided by the energy density of breast milk to estimate daily milk volume, and this number was multiplied by breast-milk mineral concentrations to estimate intakes. Principal component analyses identified clusters of minerals; principal components (PCs) were used in regression analyses for anthropometric outcomes.
RESULTS: Estimated breast-milk intakes during established lactation were insufficient to compensate for the lower milk sodium, copper, manganese, and zinc concentrations in male infants and the lower sodium, iron and manganese concentrations in female infants. Estimated intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and selenium were below the Institute of Medicine Adequate Intake for both sexes at all 3 stages of lactation. In early lactation, multiple linear regressions showed that PC1 (calcium, magnesium, potassium, rubidium, and strontium intakes) was positively associated with WAZ, LAZ, and HCAZ. In established lactation, the same PC with sodium added was positively associated with all 3 anthropometric outcomes; a second PC (PC2: zinc, copper, and selenium intakes) was associated with WAZ and LAZ but not HCAZ.
CONCLUSIONS: Breast milk may be inadequate in selected minerals and trace elements where higher estimated intakes were associated with greater infant growth.
Trace Mineral Micronutrients and Chronic Periodontitis-a Review

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Aug 31. [Epub ahead of print]
Gaur S, et al.

(AA) Trace mineral micronutrients are imperative for optimum host response. Populations worldwide are prone to their insufficiency owing to lifestyle changes or poor nutritional intake. Balanced levels of trace minerals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) are essential to prevent progression of chronic conditions like periodontitis. Their excess as well as deficiency is detrimental to periodontal health. This is specifically true in relation to Fe. Furthermore, some trace elements, e.g. Se, Zn and Cu are integral components of antioxidant enzymes and prevent reactive oxygen species induced destruction of tissues. Their deficiency can worsen periodontitis associated with systemic conditions like diabetes mellitus. With this background, the present review first focusses on the role of four trace minerals, namely, Fe, Zn, Se and Cu in periodontal health followed by an appraisal of the data from case control studies related to their association with chronic periodontitis.
Management of Parenteral Nutrition in Hospitalized Adult Patients

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2016 Sep 1. pii: 0148607116667060. [Epub ahead of print]
Mundi MS, et al.

(AA) Despite the high prevalence of malnutrition in adult hospitalized patients, surveys continue to report that many clinicians are undertrained in clinical nutrition, making targeted nutrition education for clinicians essential for best patient care. Clinical practice models also continue to evolve, with more disciplines prescribing parenteral nutrition (PN) or managing the cases of patients who are receiving it, further adding to the need for proficiency in general PN skills. This tutorial focuses on the daily management of adult hospitalized patients already receiving PN and reviews the following topics: (1) PN basics, including the determination of energy and volume requirements; (2) PN macronutrient content (protein, dextrose, and intravenous fat emulsion); (3) PN micronutrient content (electrolytes, minerals, vitamins, and trace elements); (4) alteration of PN for special situations, such as obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, refeeding, and hepatic/renal disease; (5) daily monitoring and adjustment of PN formula; and (6) PN-related complications (PN-associated liver disease and catheter-related complications).