Sunday, 24 September 2017

Minerals in the News Vol. 15, No. 9 (September 2017)

Print
Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students

Biological Trace Element Research
August 2017, Volume 178, Issue 2, pp 180-188
Kobra T., et al.

Abstract
(AA) Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p < 0.05). Each 10 μg/dL increment in serum zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p < 0.05). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.
 
 
*****************************************************
 
Association of Iodine and Iron with Thyroid Function

Biological Trace Element Research
September 2017, Volume 179, Issue 1, pp 38-44
Juhua L., et al.

Abstract
(AA) Iodine and iron are essential elements for healthy thyroid function. However, little is known about the association of iron and iodine with thyroid function in the general US population. We investigated iron and iodine status in relation to concentrations of thyroid hormones. We included 7672 participants aged 20 and older from three surveys (2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum thyroid measures (including free and total T3 and T4, and TSH), serum iron concentration, and urinary iodine concentrations were measured. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted with serum thyroid measures as dependent variables and combinations of serum iron concentration and urinary iodine concentration as predictors with covariate adjustment. Logistic regression models were performed with TSH levels (low, normal, and high) and combinations of serum iron concentration and urinary iodine concentration. Overall, 10.9% of the study population had low iron; 32.2 and 18.8% had low or high iodine levels, respectively. Compared with normal levels of iron and iodine, normal iron and high iodine were associated with reduced free T3 and increased risk of abnormal high TSH. Combined low iron and low iodine was associated with reduced free T3 and increased TSH. In addition, high iodine was associated with increased risk of abnormal high TSH in females but not in males. Thyroid function may be disrupted by low levels of iron or abnormal iodine, and relationships are complex and sex-specific. Large prospective studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which iron interacts with iodine on thyroid function.
 
*****************************************************
 
Amino acid chelated iron versus an iron salt in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia with pregnancy: A randomized controlled study

European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Volume 210, March 2017, Pages 242-246
Ghada M., et al.

Abstract
(AA) OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of iron amino acid chelate (IAAC) and ferrous fumarate (FF) in treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with pregnancy.
STUDY DESIGN:
A total of 150 pregnant women having iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were randomized to receive either IAAC or FF for 12 weeks. Hemoglobin, red cell indices, serum iron, and serum ferritin were measured at baseline and then 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment. Adverse effects were questioned in both groups.
RESULTS:
The mean values of hemoglobin, red cell indices, serum iron, and serum ferritin were not significantly different between both groups after 12 weeks of treatment. However, the rise in hemoglobin level after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment was significantly faster in the IAAC group (p = <0.001). Constipation and abdominal colicky pain were significantly more common in the FF group (p = 0.022 and 0.031 respectively).
CONCLUSION:
IAAC and FF are comparable in curing IDA with pregnancy; however, IAAC has the advantage of providing a faster rate of improvement of hemoglobin level and is better tolerated by the patients.
 
*****************************************************
 
Implications of US Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Micronutrient Density of Fortified Foods and Supplements

J Nutr. 2017 Jun;147(6):1025-1030. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.247585. Epub 2017 May 10.
McBurney M., et al.

Abstract
(AA) The US FDA published new nutrition-labeling regulations in May 2016. For the first time since the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, the Daily Value (DV) for most vitamins will change, as will the units of measurement used in nutrition labeling for some vitamins. For some food categories, the Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed (RACCs) will increase to reflect portions commonly consumed on a single occasion. These regulatory changes are now effective, and product label changes will be mandatory beginning 26 July 2018. This commentary considers the potential impact of these regulatory changes on the vitamin and mineral contents of foods and dietary supplements. Case studies examined potential effects on food fortification and nutrient density. The updated DVs may lead to a reduction in the nutrient density of foods and dietary supplements with respect to 8 vitamins (vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, biotin, and pantothenic acid) and 6 minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, chromium, molybdenum, and chloride), and have mixed effects on 2 vitamins where the amount required per serving is affected by chemical structure (i.e., form) (natural vitamin E compared with synthetic vitamin E and folic acid compared with folate). Despite an increased DV for vitamin D, regulations limit food fortification. The adoption of Dietary Folate Equivalents for folate labeling may lead to reductions in the quantity of folic acid voluntarily added per RACC. Finally, because of increased RACCs in some food categories to reflect portions that people typically eat at one time, the vitamin and mineral density of these foods may be affected adversely. In totality, the United States is entering an era in which the need to monitor dietary intake patterns and nutritional status is unprecedented.
 
*****************************************************
 
Magnesium, hemostasis, and outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

Neurology. 2017 Aug 22;89(8):813-819. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004249. Epub 2017 Jul 26
Liotta EM, et al.

Abstract
(AA) OBJECTIVE:
We tested the hypothesis that admission serum magnesium levels are associated with hematoma volume, hematoma growth, and functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
METHODS:
Patients presenting with spontaneous ICH were enrolled in an observational cohort study that prospectively collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and outcome data. We performed univariate and adjusted multivariate analyses to assess for associations between serum magnesium levels and initial hematoma volume, final hematoma volume, and in-hospital hematoma growth as radiographic measures of hemostasis, and functional outcome measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months.
RESULTS:
We included 290 patients for analysis. Admission serum magnesium was 2.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL. Lower admission magnesium levels were associated with larger initial hematoma volumes on univariate (p = 0.02), parsimoniously adjusted (p = 0.002), and fully adjusted models (p = 0.006), as well as greater hematoma growth (p = 0.004, p = 0.005, and p = 0.008, respectively) and larger final hematoma volumes (p = 0.02, p = 0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively). Lower admission magnesium level was associated with worse functional outcomes at 3 months (i.e., higher mRS; odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.64, p = 0.011) after adjustment for age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, initial hematoma volume, time from symptom onset to initial CT, and hematoma growth, with evidence that the effect of magnesium is mediated through hematoma growth.
CONCLUSIONS:
These data support the hypothesis that magnesium exerts a clinically meaningful influence on hemostasis in patients with ICH.