Saturday, 20 April 2019

Minerals in the News Vol. 16, No. 2 (February 2018)

Association of Serum Trace Elements with Schizophrenia and Effects of Antipsychotic Treatment

Biological Trace Element Research January 2018, Volume 181, Issue 1, pp 22-30
Xuefei Chen, et al.

(AA) Variation of serum trace elements was previously reported in schizophrenia (SZ) patients; however, whether such variation is resulted from the antipsychotic treatment remains obscure. A case control study consist of 165 SZ inpatients and 614 healthy controls measured serum magnesium (Mg), Copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) to investigate the relationship of trace elements and SZ. The SZ patients were further followed up (average 3.8 weeks) to evaluate the effects of antipsychotic treatment on the trace element concentrations using repeated measures ANOVA analysis. The results showed that higher concentrations of Mg and Phos and lower concentrations of Ca, Fe, and Zn were significant in SZ patients than that of controls (P < 0.01). The age was positively correlated with Fe and Cu, and negatively correlated with Ca, Phos, and Zn in controls (P < 0.05). Fe in male SZ patients was significantly higher than in female (P < 0.001), as well as in paranoid SZ and acute SZ (P < 0.05). Phos significantly increased after risperidone, clozapine, and aripiprazole treatment (P < 0.05), while Cu was decreased after clozapine and aripiprazole treatment. Zn significantly decreased particularly in mixed type SZ, acute SZ, and schizotypal SZ after antipsychotic treatment. These results suggested that higher concentration of Phos and lower concentration of Fe and Zn have important implications for the risk of SZ and the antipsychotic treatment is likely to result in the decreased Fe and increased Phos in the clinical subtypes of SZ. 
The Relationship Between Copper, Iron, and Selenium Levels and Alzheimer Disease

Biological Trace Element Research February 2018, Volume 181, Issue 2, pp 185-191
Felipe Nathanael Coelho Vaz, et al.

(AA) This study aimed to evaluate the concentrations of copper, iron, and selenium in elderly people with Alzheimer disease (AD), comparing the same parameters in a paired group of healthy people, in order to verify if the amount of these metals may influence the cognitive impairment progression. Patients' cognitive impairment was evaluated by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). The elementary quantification of erythrocytes was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. The statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS software 20.0 version, employing Shapiro-Wilk, Wilcoxon, Kruskall-Wallis, and Spearman correlation tests, considering significant results of p < 0.05. The sample was composed of 34% (n = 11) of women and 66% (n = 21) of men in each group. The AD group was characterized by a higher concentration of copper (p < 0.0001) and iron (p < 0.0001); however, there is no significant difference in selenium level. The analyses of the metal levels in different stages of AD were not significant in CDR-1, however in CDR-2 and CDR-3, elevated levels of copper and iron were observed; in CDR-3 patients, the level of selenium was lower (p < 0.008) compared to that of healthy controls. Patients with Alzheimer disease studied present increase in biometal blood levels, especially of copper and iron, and such increase can be different according to the disease stage and can cause more impairment cognitive functions in AD.
The Role of Selenium in Thyroid Gland Pathophysiology

Endokrynol Pol. 2017;68(4):440-465. doi: 10.5603/EP.2017.0051.
Stuss M., et al.

(AA) It is now assumed that proper functioning of the thyroid gland (TG), beside iodine, requires also a number of elements, including selenium, iron, zinc, copper, and calcium. In many cases, only an adequate supply of one of these microelements (e.g. iodine) may reveal symptoms resulting from deficits of other microelements (e.g. iron or selenium). Selenium is accounted to the trace elements of key importance for homeostasis of the human system, in particular, for the proper functioning of the immune system and the TG. Results of epidemiological studies have demonstrated that selenium deficit may affect as many as one billion people in many countries all over the world. A proper sequence of particular supplementations is also worth emphasising for the significant correlations among the supplemented microelements. For example, it has been demonstrated that an excessive supplementation of selenium may enhance the effects of iodine deficit in endemic regions, while proper supplementation of selenium in studied animals may alleviate the consequences of iodine excess, preventing destructive-inflammatory lesions in the TG. This paper is a summary of the current knowledge on the role of selenium in the functionality of the TG.
Copper Regulates Maturation and Expression of an MITF:Tryptase Axis in Mast Cells

J Immunol. 2017 Dec 15;199(12):4132-4141. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1700786. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
Hu Frisk JM., et al.

(AA) Copper has previously been implicated in the regulation of immune responses, but the impact of this metal on mast cells is poorly understood. In this article, we address this issue and show that copper starvation of mast cells causes increased granule maturation, as indicated by higher proteoglycan content, stronger metachromatic staining, and altered ultrastructure in comparison with nontreated cells, whereas copper overload has the opposite effects. In contrast, copper status did not impact storage of histamine in mast cells, nor did alterations in copper levels affect the ability of mast cells to degranulate in response to IgER cross-linking. A striking finding was decreased tryptase content in mast cells with copper overload, whereas copper starvation increased tryptase content. These effects were associated with corresponding shifts in tryptase mRNA levels, suggesting that copper affects tryptase gene regulation. Mechanistically, we found that alterations in copper status affected the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, a transcription factor critical for driving tryptase expression. We also found evidence supporting the concept that the effects on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor are dependent on copper-mediated modulation of MAPK signaling. Finally, we show that, in MEDNIK syndrome, a condition associated with low copper levels and a hyperallergenic skin phenotype, including pruritis and dermatitis, the number of tryptase-positive mast cells is increased. Taken together, our findings reveal a hitherto unrecognized role for copper in the regulation of mast cell gene expression and maturation.